Primidone improves symptoms in TRPM3-linked developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with spike-and-wave activation in sleep
Lena-Luise Becker, Denise Horn, Felix Boschann, Evelien Van Hoeymissen, Thomas Voets, Joris Vriens, Christine Prager, Angela M. Kaindl
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave activation in sleep (CSWS) or DEE-SWAS is an age-dependent disease, often accompanied by a decline in cognitive abilities. Early successful treatment of CSWS is associated with a better cognitive outcome. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical, electrophysiological, radiological, and genetic data of children with DEE-SWAS associated with melastatin-related transient receptor type 3 gene (TRPM3) missense variants. We report two unrelated children with pharmacoresistant DEE-SWAS and developmental delay/regression and different heterozygous de novo missense variants in the TRPM3gene (NM_001366145.2; c.3397 T > C/p.Ser1133Pro, c.2004G > A/p.Val1002Met). The variant p.Val1002Met (previously known as p.Val990Met or p.Val837Met) and p.Ser1133Pro were recently shown to result in a gain-of-function effect. Based on this finding, previous drug resistance, and the experimentally demonstrated inhibitory effect of primidone on TRPM3, we initiated an individualized therapy with this drug. In both children, developmental regression was stopped, psychomotor development improved, and CSWS was no longer detectable. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a treatment with primidone in TRPM3-associated CSWS. Our results highlight the importance of early genetic diagnosis in patients with epilepsy and the possibility of precision medicine, which should be considered in the future in individuals with a TRPM3-linked DEE-SWAS.
Epilepsia. 2023;64:e61–e68. (2023)