Clinical outcome of children with corpus callosum agenesis
Vera Raile, Nina A Herz, Gabriel Promnitz, Joanna Schneider, Anna Tietze, Angela M Kaindl
Background. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a rare congenital brain malformation that can be associated with other cerebral malformations and/or underlying genetic causes. Prenatal counseling is hampered due to the lack of reliable long-term data on neurodevelopmental outcome.
Methods. Since 2010, a total of 23 children with agenesis of the corpus callosum (mean age 3.8 years, range 0.7 to 9.7 years) were registered in our ACC outpatient clinic and diagnosed in a standardized manner; the data were analyzed retrospectively. Prenatal and postnatal imaging, associated malformations, genetic and clinical findings, and psychological testing (Bayley Scales, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children II, Snijders-Oomen Non-verbal Test, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale I-III) were included. The clinical outcome was classified as “normal” (intelligence quotient 85 to 115, unremarkable motor skills), “moderate developmental delay” (intelligence quotient 70 to 85, mild motor abnormalities), and “severe developmental delay” (intelligence quotient less than 70, severe movement disorder).
Results. Isolated corpus callosum malformation was diagnosed in 15 of 23 (65%), associated cerebral malformations in four of 23 (17%), and associated cerebral malformations plus intracranial cyst in four of 23 (17%) children. Prenatal diagnosis changed in nine of 23 (39%) cases. Overall, a normal outcome or moderate or severe developmental delay was present in 15 of 23 (65%) or five of 23 (22%) or three of 23 (13%) children, respectively. Also six of eight children with associated cerebral malformations showed normal outcome.
Conclusion. Our findings support the notion that developmental outcome is favorable in about two-thirds of children with prenatally diagnosed agenesis of corpus callosum. However, the individual outcome in children with agenesis of corpus callosum is difficult to predict. Even children with correctly characterized phenotypes show a variety of outcomes, making prenatal counseling challenging.