Fast, flexible closed-Loop feedback: tracking movement in “real-millisecond-time”
Keisuke Sehara, Viktor Bahr, Ben Mitchinson, Martin J Pearson, Matthew E Larkum and Robert NS Sachdev
One of the principal functions of the brain is to control movement and rapidly adapt behavior to a changing external environment. Over the last decades our ability to monitor activity in the brain, manipulate it while also manipulating the environment the animal moves through, has been tackled with increasing sophistication. However, our ability to track the movement of the animal in real time has not kept pace. Here, we use a dynamic vision sensor (DVS) based event-driven neuromorphic camera system to implement real-time, low-latency tracking of a single whisker that mice can move at 25 Hz. The customized DVS system described here converts whisker motion into a series of events that can be used to estimate the position of the whisker and to trigger a position-based output interactively within 2 ms. This neuromorphic chip-based closed-loop system provides feedback rapidly and flexibly. With this system, it becomes possible to use the movement of whiskers or in principal, movement of any part of the body to reward, punish, in a rapidly reconfigurable way. These methods can be used to manipulate behavior, and the neural circuits that help animals adapt to changing values of a sequence of motor actions.